Project Completion Reports
Assessing the Efficacy of Remediating Episodic Low pH (and High Aluminum) Concentrations in Headwater Brook Trout Streams with Clam Shell Additions
This project demonstrated that clam shells could be utilized to increase pH and decrease detrimental inorganic aluminum concentrations. In Dead Stream, water chemistry has improved by approximately 1.0 pH unit, and total fish densities increased two-fold. In Canaan Brook water chemistry has improved by 1.0 pH unit and First Lake Stream improved by 0.7 pH unit, while fish densities have increased 2- and 6- times, respectively. Macroinvertebrate communities have improved somewhat, especially among mayflies and stoneflies, while amphipods and snails have appeared for the first time. However, even at treated sites, macroinvertebrate communities continue to have low diversity and may not achieve Class A water quality. Overall, by adding buffering capacity, there has been a boost to the bottom of the food chain which has contributed to improved fish abundance and diversity. In the fourth year, biological communities are still adapting to the new conditions.
In the summer of 2011 the culvert at the Davis Creek Road (FSR 420) crossing of Tipton Creek was removed and replaced with a concrete arch, stream simulation crossing for the purpose of passing aquatic organisms, where the existing culvert was known to be a barrier to aquatic passage due to velocity and outlet drop. The crossing was sized using the 100-year flow calculation derived from the USGS Regression Equation for the mountains of North Carolina. Additionally, the width of the crossing was designed to accommodate a bankfull flow channel dimension plus a small area of floodplain. The channel was reconstructed through the crossing using the dimension, pattern, and profile of the reference reach upstream. The new channel was constructed using imported boulders and onsite alluvial materials. Grass seed was sown, and trees and shrubs were planted, both potted and live-stakes. Over the last year since construction, the site has experienced several small flood events. The site remains stable, passable to all aquatic species, and looks more and more natural every year as planted and natural vegetation establishes.
This reports provides a summary of the work completed on this project from October, 2012 to September, 2013.
The project replaced an undersized and failing stream crossing on Carloe Brook a major tributary to Clifford Lake that has wild brook trout. This stream crossing currently limits passage for trout and other aquatic organisms. The current crossing is also a significant sediment source due to improper construction and overtopping. The crossing was replaced with a 1.2 bankfull open bottom arch culvert (15ft wide) designed to allow passage at all flows.
This project was focused on removing rainbow trout from Lynn Camp Prong and re-stocking this stream with wild southern Appalachian strain Brook Trout,
The goals of the project were: (1) To remove an obstruction to upstream fish passage for brook trout, Atlantic salmon and other resident and migratory fish. (2) To restore access to 9.8 miles of stream habitat upstream of the obstruction. (3) To restore natural sediment and woody debris transport through the crossing site. (4) To improve flood capacity at the Magog Road crossing, reducing the risk of debris jams or overtopping the road. (5) To provide a demonstration site in mid‐coast Maine for an appropriate stream crossing developed in cooperation with the municipality.
As part of a plan to upgrade their public water supply to a non-dam alternative, the Borough of Galeton agreed to remove two dams and their associated impoundments. The dams were located on Wetmore Run and Right Branch of Wetmore Run, Potter County, PA. Both streams are classified as High Quality – Coldwater Fishery (HQ – CWF) by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP) and drain a predominantly forested watershed comprised of ~60% public land. The barriers blocked upstream Brook Trout passage to approximately 8.5 miles of headwater habitat, contributed to the elevation of instream temperatures, interrupted the natural flow regime, and negatively impacted ecosystem function. As a result of the dam removals, almost 8.5 miles of headwater habitat was reconnected to the rest of the upper Pine Creek Watershed, which contains several intact eastern Brook Trout populations.
This project replaced two degraded stream/road crossings with bankfull channel width spanning open bottom structures.
Dam Removals to Reconnect Brook Trout Habitat on an Unnamed Tributary to Frankstown Branch, Hollidaysburg PA
Kladder Dam was removed in September 2014 and the tributary through the former impoundment was restored to an appropriate gradient to match the watershed. Stream restoration materials included native soil and rock, clay from the dam’s core, sediment from behind the dam, and Large Wood Debris, all originating on the site. In addition, a riparian corridor was planted in the former impoundment, and several rock jack-dams and brick lining in about 100 feet of the stream channel above the former impoundment were removed by hand.
Mostly dead and/or down hemlock trees were utilized to create large woody material inspired habitat structures to increase pool habit, increase thalweg meander length, decrease bankfull width, and introduce overhead fish cover. Cross-vanes, j-hooks, wing-deflectors, toe wood, digger logs, and engineered log jams were constructed. The strategic part of this chop and drop effort was to place and anchor logs to minimize movement in bankfull or high events.
Through this project, Downeast Lakes Land Trust (DLLT) continued its work with partners to restore brook trout habitat on priority streams within its 55,678-acre Downeast Lakes Community Forest by removing passage barriers. Of the four sites included in the original proposal (Billy Brown Brook/Shaw St., Amazon Brook/Amazon Rd., Grand Lake Brook/Fourth Lake Rd., and Fourth Lake Trib./Belden Brook Rd), two were completed using NRCS funding received after the initial proposal was submitted to USFWS. As a result, Eastern Brook Trout Joint Venture funding was used to restore fish passage at two additional sites at South Branch/Little River Rd and Towers Brook/Little River Rd.